About Indonesian Coffee
Coffee is a beverage that is important for most people around the world. Not just for the pleasure of consumers drink coffee, but also because of the economic value for the countries that produce and export coffee beans (such as Indonesia). For some people this product is made from beans roasted coffee plants (flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae), referred to as “the second most commodities traded legally” in human history.
Coffee sold in the world is usually a combination of roasted seeds of two varieties of coffee trees: Arabica and Robusta. The difference between these two varieties is mainly in flavor and caffeine level. Arabica beans, is more expensive on the world market, has a mild flavor and contains more caffeine 70% lower compared to robusta beans.
Subtropical and tropical region is a good location for the cultivation of coffee. Therefore, countries that dominate the world’s coffee production is in the region of South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia.
Coffee is a commodity traded on commodity exchanges and futures, most importantly in London and New York. Below, there are two tables that indicate the five major coffee producing countries of the world and five major world coffee exporting countries.
Coffee in Indonesia
Domestic production, exports and consumption of Indonesian Coffee
Indonesia is one of the largest producer and exporter of coffee in the world. Most of its production is robusta varieties of lower quality. Indonesia is also famous for a variety of specialty coffees such as ‘civet coffee’ (known as the most expensive coffee in the world) and ‘coffee Mandailings’ (see below). In connection with agricultural commodities, coffee is the fourth largest foreign exchange earner for Indonesia after oil palm, rubber and cocoa.
Coffee was introduced in the archipelago by the Netherlands that was originally planted coffee trees around their territory in Batavia, but then quickly expand coffee production to the area of Bogor and Sukabumi in West Java in the 17th century and the 18th century. Indonesia has proven its climate is almost ideal for the production of coffee and hence plantations soon be established in other areas in Java, Sumatra and Sulawesi.
At this time, Indonesian coffee plantations cover a total area of approximately 1.24 million hectares, 933 hectares of plantations of robusta and arabica plantation 307 hectares. More than 90% of the total plantation cultivated by small-scale farmers. As has been mentioned above and is similar to the regional coffee giant Vietnam, most Indonesian coffee beans production is robusta varieties of lower quality. Arabica beans higher quality mostly produced by South American countries such as Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador and Costa Rica. Therefore, the majority of Indonesia’s coffee exports (approximately 80%) consisting of robusta beans. Exports of processed coffee is just a small part of the total exports of Indonesian coffee.